Steady state water flow solutions 

 
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Geometry-based solutions

b) D8 : artificial pattern on hillslopes, creates channel through depression

c) vector-grid: depressions act as sinks,  dispersal flow in not well represented

Process-based solutions using path sampling method

d) 2D kinematic wave: depressions accumulate water to infinity, modification of DEM is needed

e) 2D approx. diffusive wave: simulates shallow pond in the depression

f) 2D approx. diffusive wave with channel inserted in configuration space